C

Fundamental concept of Problem solving
Introduction
Problem solving strategies
Program design & implementation
Introduction to C
Introduction to C
How to open C program code window
Description of C code window
Editing File
Saving and Running a program
The components of C language
Structure of C Program
A sample of C language program
C character set and keywords
C character set and keywords
The C character set
Identifiers
Key words
Data Types
Data Types
Primary Data Type
Secondary Data Type
Variables
Introduction
Rules for constructing variables names
Variable declaration
Assigning values to variables
Scope of variables: Local & Global
Constants
Introduction
Character constants
Integer constants
Real constants
Logical & String constants
C instruction set
Introduction
Type Declaration & Input/Output Instructions
Arithmetic Instructions
Control Instructions
Operators
Introduction
Arithmetic operators
Relational operators
Logical operators
Increment & Decrement operators
Bitwise operators
Conditional & ternary operators
The comma operators
Size of operator
Assignment operator
Type modifier
Expressions
Evaluation of expression
Automatic type conversion
Basic Input/Output
Introduction
Console I/O function
Disc & Port I/O function
Control Structures
Sequence control statements
Decision control & conditional statements
Case control statements
Repitition & loop control statements
Some more statements
Array and String
Introduction of Array
Array Declaration
Array Initialization
Two Dimensional Array
Multi Dimensional Array
String
Function and Recursion
Function Definition
Function Declaration
Function Call
Recursion
Pointers
Introduction
Pointer expression
Pointer & functions
Pointer & Array
Multi Dimensional Arrays & Pointer
Arrays of Pointer
Use of Pointer & functions
Structures
Introduction
Giving values to member
Structure Initialization
Comparison of structure variables
Arrays of structures
Arrays within structures
Structures within structures
Passing structure to function
Union
Introduction
Accessing a union member
Initialization of Union variable
Uses of Union
Dynamic Data Structure
Linked list
Stack
Queue
Data File Handling through C
Introduction
File operation
Opening & closing a data file
Creating a data file
Processing a data file
Unformatted data file
C Preprocessor & Macro
Introduction
Macro substitution directives
File inclusion
Compiler control directive
Command line parameter of C
Command line parameter
Header file
Header file
Use of library functions
Some Useful library functions

Pointers


Introduction

Pointers are a fundamental part of C. If you cannot use pointers properly then you have basically lost all the power and flexibility that C allows. The secret of C is in its use of pointers.
 
C uses pointers a lot. Why?
 
It is the only way to express some computations.
 
It produces compact and efficient code.
 
It provides a very powerful tool.
 
C uses pointers explicitly with following:
 
1. Functions.
2. Arrays.
3. Structures. (discussed later)
 
Note: Pointers are perhaps the most difficult part of C to understand. C's implementation is slightly different from other languages.
 
What is a Pointer?
 
A pointer is a variable which can hold the address of a memory location rather than the value at the location.
 
Pointer Notation
 
The actual address of a variable is not known immediately. We can determine the address of the variable using address of operator(&).
 
We have already seen the use of address of operator in the scanf() function.
 
Another pointer operator available in C is "*" called "value of address" operator. It gives the value stored at a particular address. This operator is also known as indirection operator.
 
Pointer Declaration
 
To declare a pointer to a variable:
 
int *pointer;
 
Note: We must associate a pointer to a particular type: You can't assign the address of a short int to a long int,