C

Fundamental concept of Problem solving
Introduction
Problem solving strategies
Program design & implementation
Introduction to C
Introduction to C
How to open C program code window
Description of C code window
Editing File
Saving and Running a program
The components of C language
Structure of C Program
A sample of C language program
C character set and keywords
C character set and keywords
The C character set
Identifiers
Key words
Data Types
Data Types
Primary Data Type
Secondary Data Type
Variables
Introduction
Rules for constructing variables names
Variable declaration
Assigning values to variables
Scope of variables: Local & Global
Constants
Introduction
Character constants
Integer constants
Real constants
Logical & String constants
C instruction set
Introduction
Type Declaration & Input/Output Instructions
Arithmetic Instructions
Control Instructions
Operators
Introduction
Arithmetic operators
Relational operators
Logical operators
Increment & Decrement operators
Bitwise operators
Conditional & ternary operators
The comma operators
Size of operator
Assignment operator
Type modifier
Expressions
Evaluation of expression
Automatic type conversion
Basic Input/Output
Introduction
Console I/O function
Disc & Port I/O function
Control Structures
Sequence control statements
Decision control & conditional statements
Case control statements
Repitition & loop control statements
Some more statements
Array and String
Introduction of Array
Array Declaration
Array Initialization
Two Dimensional Array
Multi Dimensional Array
String
Function and Recursion
Function Definition
Function Declaration
Function Call
Recursion
Pointers
Introduction
Pointer expression
Pointer & functions
Pointer & Array
Multi Dimensional Arrays & Pointer
Arrays of Pointer
Use of Pointer & functions
Structures
Introduction
Giving values to member
Structure Initialization
Comparison of structure variables
Arrays of structures
Arrays within structures
Structures within structures
Passing structure to function
Union
Introduction
Accessing a union member
Initialization of Union variable
Uses of Union
Dynamic Data Structure
Linked list
Stack
Queue
Data File Handling through C
Introduction
File operation
Opening & closing a data file
Creating a data file
Processing a data file
Unformatted data file
C Preprocessor & Macro
Introduction
Macro substitution directives
File inclusion
Compiler control directive
Command line parameter of C
Command line parameter
Header file
Header file
Use of library functions
Some Useful library functions

Data Types


Primary Data Type

1. Void
 
Description:
Used to specify empty set containing no values.
Storage Space: 0 byte.
Format: (void).
Range of values: ______.
 
2. Character (Denoted as "char" in C programming language)
 
Description:
A character denotes any alphabet, digit or special symbol used to represent in formation and it is used to store a single character.
Storage space: 1 byte
Format: %c
Range of Values: ASCII Character Set.
 
3. Integer (Denoted as "int" in C programming language)
 
Description:
Integer type is used to store positive and negative integer.
Storage space: 2 bytes.
Format: %d
Range of values: -32768 to +32767.
 
4. Float
 
Description:
It is used to store real number, with single precision floating point number (precision of 6 digits after decimal points.)
Storage space: 4 bytes.
Format: %f
Range of values: -3.4*1038 to +3.4*1038.
 
5. Double
 
Description:
It stores real numbers with double precision. The use of double doesn't guarantee to double the number of significant digits in our result, but it improves the accuracy of the arithmetic and reduces the accumulation of rounding errors.
Storage Space: 8 bytes.
Format: %ld
Range of values: -1.7*10308 to +1.7*10308.
 
An example program of using basic data type:
 
 
Output of the program:
 
 
Explanation: Numeric data stored is stored in the memory in their binary form, while the character data has to be codified as a unique integer and that code number is stored in the internal storage.
 
The integer equivalents of alphabets are:
 
Lower case: a-z = 97 to 122
Upper case: A-Z = 65 to 90
 
In the above program when the characters are displayed in the integer format the corresponding ASCII code are displayed, similarly when integers are displayed in the character format then equivalent character is displayed.