C

Fundamental concept of Problem solving
Introduction
Problem solving strategies
Program design & implementation
Introduction to C
Introduction to C
How to open C program code window
Description of C code window
Editing File
Saving and Running a program
The components of C language
Structure of C Program
A sample of C language program
C character set and keywords
C character set and keywords
The C character set
Identifiers
Key words
Data Types
Data Types
Primary Data Type
Secondary Data Type
Variables
Introduction
Rules for constructing variables names
Variable declaration
Assigning values to variables
Scope of variables: Local & Global
Constants
Introduction
Character constants
Integer constants
Real constants
Logical & String constants
C instruction set
Introduction
Type Declaration & Input/Output Instructions
Arithmetic Instructions
Control Instructions
Operators
Introduction
Arithmetic operators
Relational operators
Logical operators
Increment & Decrement operators
Bitwise operators
Conditional & ternary operators
The comma operators
Size of operator
Assignment operator
Type modifier
Expressions
Evaluation of expression
Automatic type conversion
Basic Input/Output
Introduction
Console I/O function
Disc & Port I/O function
Control Structures
Sequence control statements
Decision control & conditional statements
Case control statements
Repitition & loop control statements
Some more statements
Array and String
Introduction of Array
Array Declaration
Array Initialization
Two Dimensional Array
Multi Dimensional Array
String
Function and Recursion
Function Definition
Function Declaration
Function Call
Recursion
Pointers
Introduction
Pointer expression
Pointer & functions
Pointer & Array
Multi Dimensional Arrays & Pointer
Arrays of Pointer
Use of Pointer & functions
Structures
Introduction
Giving values to member
Structure Initialization
Comparison of structure variables
Arrays of structures
Arrays within structures
Structures within structures
Passing structure to function
Union
Introduction
Accessing a union member
Initialization of Union variable
Uses of Union
Dynamic Data Structure
Linked list
Stack
Queue
Data File Handling through C
Introduction
File operation
Opening & closing a data file
Creating a data file
Processing a data file
Unformatted data file
C Preprocessor & Macro
Introduction
Macro substitution directives
File inclusion
Compiler control directive
Command line parameter of C
Command line parameter
Header file
Header file
Use of library functions
Some Useful library functions

Control Structures


Some more statements

The break Statement
 
We have already met break in the discussion of the switch statement. It is used to exit from a loop or a switch, passing control to the first statement beyond the loop or a switch.
 
With loops, break can be used to force an early exit from the loop, or to implement a loop with a test to exit in the middle of the loop body.
 
A break within a loop should always be protected within an if statement which provides the test to control the exit condition.
 
An Example program to determine whether a number is prime or not:
 
 
Out put of the program
 
 
The continue Statement
 
This is similar to break but is encountered less frequently. It only works within loops where its effect is to force an immediate jump to the loop control statement.
 
In a while loop, jump to the test statement.
 
In a do while loop, jump to the test statement.
 
In a for loop, jump to the test, and perform the iteration (looping).
 
Like a break, continue should be protected by an if statement. You are unlikely to use it very often.
 
An example of program using continue statement:
 
 
 
Out put of the program
 
 
The goto Statement
 
C has a goto statement which permits unstructured jumps to be made. It requires a label in order to identify the place where the branch is to be made.
 
A label is any valid variable name,and must be followed by a colon(:).
 
Syntax:
 
goto label;
..................
label:
statement;
 
The label can be any where in the program either before or after the goto label; statement.
 
An example program using goto statement:
 
 
Out put of the program
 
 
Explanation of the program
 
Here the program will ask untill you give negative value at the time when you give positive value then instantly it will show you the square root value of the given number.
 
Another use of the goto statement is to transfer the control out of a loop (or nested loops) when certain particular conditions are encountered.
 
Note: We should try to avoid using goto as far as possible because, it is not good for readability of the program or to improve the program execution speed.
 
The exit() function
 
This function is used for terminating the execution of C program.
 
Syntax:
 
exit(int status);