C

Fundamental concept of Problem solving
Introduction
Problem solving strategies
Program design & implementation
Introduction to C
Introduction to C
How to open C program code window
Description of C code window
Editing File
Saving and Running a program
The components of C language
Structure of C Program
A sample of C language program
C character set and keywords
C character set and keywords
The C character set
Identifiers
Key words
Data Types
Data Types
Primary Data Type
Secondary Data Type
Variables
Introduction
Rules for constructing variables names
Variable declaration
Assigning values to variables
Scope of variables: Local & Global
Constants
Introduction
Character constants
Integer constants
Real constants
Logical & String constants
C instruction set
Introduction
Type Declaration & Input/Output Instructions
Arithmetic Instructions
Control Instructions
Operators
Introduction
Arithmetic operators
Relational operators
Logical operators
Increment & Decrement operators
Bitwise operators
Conditional & ternary operators
The comma operators
Size of operator
Assignment operator
Type modifier
Expressions
Evaluation of expression
Automatic type conversion
Basic Input/Output
Introduction
Console I/O function
Disc & Port I/O function
Control Structures
Sequence control statements
Decision control & conditional statements
Case control statements
Repitition & loop control statements
Some more statements
Array and String
Introduction of Array
Array Declaration
Array Initialization
Two Dimensional Array
Multi Dimensional Array
String
Function and Recursion
Function Definition
Function Declaration
Function Call
Recursion
Pointers
Introduction
Pointer expression
Pointer & functions
Pointer & Array
Multi Dimensional Arrays & Pointer
Arrays of Pointer
Use of Pointer & functions
Structures
Introduction
Giving values to member
Structure Initialization
Comparison of structure variables
Arrays of structures
Arrays within structures
Structures within structures
Passing structure to function
Union
Introduction
Accessing a union member
Initialization of Union variable
Uses of Union
Dynamic Data Structure
Linked list
Stack
Queue
Data File Handling through C
Introduction
File operation
Opening & closing a data file
Creating a data file
Processing a data file
Unformatted data file
C Preprocessor & Macro
Introduction
Macro substitution directives
File inclusion
Compiler control directive
Command line parameter of C
Command line parameter
Header file
Header file
Use of library functions
Some Useful library functions

Introduction to C


Structure of C Program

Every C program is made of function and every function consist of instructions called statement.
 
Structure of C Program.
 
#include //stdio.h is the header file
main() // main function is the first function which is executed by a C program.
 
All C statements are written within main function.
{
 
// All C statements.
 
}
 
Functions
 
Every C program consists of one or more modules called functions. One of the functions must be called main( ).
The program will always begin by executing the main function, which may access other functions.
 
Any other function definitions must be defined separately, either ahead of or after main.
 
A function name is always followed by a pair of parenthesis, namely, ( ). And all function statements are enclosed within a pair of braces { }.
 
The program execution always starts with main function. When the closing brace of the main function is reached, program execution stops, and the control is handed back to the OS (Operating System).
 
Statements
 
Single C language instruction is called a statement. Statements are written according to the grammar of C language. Every C language statement must ends with semicolon(;).
 
In order to write a C program we should follow some basic rules which are described below:
 
a) Usually all statements in C are entered in small alphabets.
 
b) Blank spaces may be inserted between two words to improve the program readability. However no blank spaces are allowed within a variables, constants or key words.
 
c) It has no specific rules for the position at which statements is to be retained that's why it’s often called a free form language.
 
d) All C statements must end with a semicolon (; )
 
Till now, We have very little knowledge about the type of variables, constants and key words. Now we would try to understand the simple C program.