Core Java

Java Evolution
Java History
Java Features
Benefits of Java over C and C++
How Java works
The Java Programming Language
The Java Platform
Java Development Kit
Disadvantages of Java
Overview of Java Language
Developing the Java Application
Comments in Java Code
Defining a Class
The main Method
Using Classes and Objects
Java Program Structure
Java Tokens
Constant, Variable and Datatype
Declaring Variables
Rules on Variable Names
Variable Types
Primitive Data Types
Operator and Expression
Expressions and Operators
Operator Precedence
Integer Operators
Relational Integer Operators
Floating point Operators
Relational Floating-Point Operators
String Operator
Assignment Operators
Arithmetic assignment operations
Boolean expressions and operations
Logical operators
Bitwise operations
The complement operator
Decision making, Branching and Looping
Flow control with if and else
The if statement
The else statement
Switch statements
for, while, and do-while statements
The for statement
The while statement
The do-while statement
Using break and continue
The break statement
The continue statement
Class Object and Method
Introduction to Classes
The Benefit of Classes
Defining Classes
Class using constructor
Declaring an Object
Instantiating an Object
Initializing an Object
Referencing an Object's Variables
Calling an Object's Methods
Creating a Class
The Class Declaration
The Class Body
Constructors for Classes
Implementing Methods
The Method Body
A Method's Name
Example of the Math class
The Applet Package
Array and String
Java arrays
Object arrays
String Concatenation
Creating Subclasses
Member Variables In Subclass Inherit?
Hiding Member Variables
Methods In Subclass Inherit?
Overriding Methods
Methods a Subclass Cannot Override
Methods a Subclass Must Override
The Benefits of Inheritance
Interfaces and Classes
Implementing and Using Interfaces
Implementing Multiple Interfaces
Creating and Extending Interfaces
Methods Inside Interfaces
Extending Interfaces
Declaring Packages
Importing Packages
Creating Our Own Packages
The Java Language Package
The Java I/O Package
The Java Utility Package
The Java Networking Package
The Applet Package
The Abstract Window Toolkit Packages
Thread Attributes
Thread State
Thread Group
Methods that Operate on the Group
Access Restriction Methods
The notifyAll() and wait() Methods
Frequently used Method
Exception Handling
What Is an Exception?
If Exceptions than?
The exception handling technique
Some Terminology
Throw an Exception
Throw, try, and catch Blocks
Multiple catch Blocks
The finally Clause
The Throwable Class
Types of Exceptions
Different List of Exception
Built-In Exceptions
How Applets and Applications Are Different
Limitation of Applet
The Applet class
Major Applet Activities
The life cycle of a Web page applet
Including an Applet on a Web Page
Essential HTML to launch an applet and pass it parameters
Launching an applet in an HTML document
A sample applet that receives a parameter
Posting a Web page that launches a custom applet
Managing Input/Output Files in Java
Input Streams
The Abstract Class InputStream
The File class
The FileDialog class
Low-level and high-level stream classes
The FileOutputStream class
The FileInputStream class
The DataOutputStream class
The DataInputStream class
The ObjectOutputStream class
The ObjectInputStream class
Examples of Core Java
A simple program printing 'Hello'.
Writing the first ten multiples of any number using for loop.
To check whether a number is a PERFECT NUMBER or not.
A simple program using accumulator.
Calculate the square of the numbers from 1 to 10

Class Object and Method

Defining Classes

To define a class, we use the class keyword and the name of the class:
class MyClassName
By default, classes inherit from the Object class.
If this class is a subclass of another specific class (that is, inherits from another class), use extends to indicate the superclass of this class:
class myClassName extends mySuperClassName
Following is the code for a class called SimplePoint that represents a point in 2D space:
public class SimplePoint
public int x = 0;
public int y = 0;
This segment of code declares a class-- a new data type really-- called SimplePoint. The SimplePoint class contains two integer member variables, x and y. The public keyword preceding the declaration for x and y means that any other class can freely access these two members.
We create an object from a class such as SimplePoint by instantiating the class. When we create a new SimplePoint object space is allocated for the object and its members x and y. In addition, the x and y members inside the object are initialized to 0 because of the assignment statements in the declarations of these two members.


public class SimpleRectangle
public int width = 0;
public int height = 0;
public SimplePoint origin = new SimplePoint();
Here the segment of code declares a class SimpleRectangle-- that contains two integer members, width and height.
SimpleRectangle also contains a third member, origin, whose data type is SimplePoint.
Here the class name SimplePoint is used in a variable declaration as the variable's type. We can use the name of a class anywhere we can use the name of a primitive type.
As with SimplePoint, when we create a new SimpleRectangle object, space is allocated for the object and its members, and the members are initialized according to their declarations.
The initialization for the origin member creates a SimplePoint object with this code: new SimplePoint() as illustrated here:


This diagram shows the difference between primitive types and reference types